Sergio Aguero scored in the dying moments of the game to pull Argentina within a goal, but it was too late.
Ronaldo came closest in 2006, when he was 21 and only just beginning to become a star, in a Portugal team where veterans Luis Figo and Deco were the big attacking names.
Debate was still raging on over Japan's approach to their final group game against Poland after the Asian side sneaked into the last 16 on the back of their superior disciplinary record.
Messi recorded two assists but could not score as Jorge Sampaoli's men bowed out of Russian Federation 2018 following a 4-3 defeat in Kazan.
- Portugal have now lost their last four World Cup matches in the knockout stages of the tournament, since a goalless draw with England in the 2006 quarter-final.
It remains to be seen whether the 31-year-old will play at another World Cup following another dismal display by Argentina in Russian Federation.
Trump has list of 25 possible Supreme Court nominees
De Sousa said he understood the significance because of his background as a constitutional lawyer. He said the voices of millions of Americans heading to the polls this fall "deserve to be heard".
Real Madrid's Portuguese forward Cristiano Ronaldo (R) looks at Barcelona's Argentinian forward Lionel Messi during the Spanish league football match between FC Barcelona and Real Madrid CF at the Camp Nou stadium in Barcelona on May 6, 2018.
Prior to Saturday, Uruguay had not conceded a goal at the World Cup, but Portugal ended that run when Pepe levelled the match in the 55th minute.
Argentina coach Jorge Sampaoli: "This is very painful, especially because the players have made a huge effort". Spain play hosts Russian Federation in the early game, with Croatia taking on Denmark in the late match.
Tennis star Andy Murray (at a Wimbledon press conference): "I can't believe I'm missing this match".
Uruguay has a population of just 3.44 million people, over 1.2 million less than New Zealand.
The Round of 16 continues with a pair of matches on Sunday.
At 6am, the impressive Croatia - who won all three of their pool games - play Denmark.